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In recent times there has been an increase in the number of bed bug infestations. Bed bugs are common all over the world and have been found in Australia in tiny numbers. Recently they've become widespread with infestations increasing substantially in Victoria, and parts of the world, over the previous ten years. .
The main reason behind the increase is thought to be due to insecticide resistance; modern bed bugs are exceptionally resilient to many of those commonly used insecticides. Other contributing factors include the increase in world travel with bed bugs being spread in luggage, shoes and clothing. Once acquired at turnover accommodation, the hitchhiking bed bugs could then be transported and introduced back to the houses of guests in their luggage.
Many hostels have now banned the use of travellers own sleeping linen in shared accommodation as a security precaution against this insect.
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In early infestations, bed bugs are found around the seams, beading and folds of mattresses, sleeping bags and sheets. Since the infestation spreads, the bugs proceed to any tiny crevices, which might be in bed heads, skirting boards, cracks in plaster and bedroom furniture. Because of their color, mature bed bugs can easily be seen with the naked eye on white sheets and bedding, but very tough to see on brown wooden floors and other black surfaces.
Heavily used hiding places are evident from black or brown stains of blood excrement or spotting. There may also be an offensive candy odour when bed bugs are numerous. This odour described as buggy is similar to the odour when a stink bug is squashed. White eggs, the egg cases and moulted skin cubes may also be found near such areas, as well as living bed bugs. .
Bed bugs use pheromones to communicate. This system of communication and the launch of alarm pheromones can make them quite hard to deal with as bed bugs become alert and quickly vacate the area being treated if not previously properly quarantined.
Bed bugs can spread into a new residence by traveling between multi-unit housing such as dormitories and apartment buildings. Once they find a host, bed bugs will nourish and therefore are likely to harbor in near proximity. In cases like this, new locations can quickly become infested with bed bugs in a brief amount of time. .
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Different individuals have varying reactions to the bites of bed bugs, depending on a number of variables. Some individuals have little or no reaction to the sting. In others the sting site can get red and intensely itchy. This can happen during the course of the night or may take up to 9-14 days to grow.
The wheals can range from 2 cm to 5 cm in diameter with inflammation common. Anaphylactic shock may occur in individuals that are allergic, but this is rare. .
Discomfort and loss of sleep is common from the ramifications of bed bugs. Bites may be found on many different places on the body. Another characteristic is that the bites are in orderly rows, unlike the random pattern of mosquitoes. The bed bug causes these rows being disturbed during feeding and having to pierce the skin to feed again.
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Bed bugs mainly feed on humans but will feed on mammals and poultry if necessary. Although they can carry diseases like hepatitis they are not known to transfer these diseases to other individuals.
Bed bugs are especially problematic to treat, with complete eradication unlikely to be accomplished with a single treatment. The bed bugs may be killed by sprays but they're largely ineffective on the eggs. Follow up inspections are always required and additional treatments are often necessary.
Bed bug eggs' survival is an issue. It's not uncommon for the live bed bugs amongst an infestation to be wholly eradicated during an effective treatment cycle, only to have the remaining or surviving eggs hatch and populate the location investigate this site once again. The eggs can also have an incubation period of up to fourteen days and may be deposited in hidden areas that are tough to deal with. .
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This stubborn tendency of bed bug infestations are made more problematic due to the now smaller dimensions of the newly re-emerged mattress bug nymph. Once an infestation is discovered, all adjoining rooms need to be inspected and handled if additionally influenced.
This can be completed by using adhesive tape (if insect numbers are very little ) to trap the insect. Vacuuming is also recommended before chemical treatment because it removes all dust and debris from the website of the infestation making it simpler for following chemical control to penetrate and in turn be effective.